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How to get involved with Ru

If your institution wants to get involved in the Ru network, there are a couple of things to consider. In terms of hardware, you will need a public place (library, or foyer) with easy access to:

  1. power,  and
  2. a wired internet connection

The hardware you need consists of:

  1. the TC1 seismometer,
  2. a dedicated computer,
  3. a case to protect the device from bumps.

Maybe most importantly, you need a Station Manager.  A teacher would be the most logical choice, but it could be  a parent. The station manager does not need to be a seismologist, but  someone who can field basic questions from students,  solve small problems with the station, and relay bigger ones to us for troubleshooting.

 

To give you an idea on how your class project may go, you can watch this video.

Through the generosity of the Foundation of the Society of Exploration Geophysicists, we have some scholarships available for the most suited institutions. If you want your institution to be considered for a scholarship, write us.

 

SchoolSeismometerSetup
Rangi1: The setup at Rangi Ruru
20140725_123055
AUCK: the station at the University of Auckland

 

SeiSNZ is now Ru!

We are very proud to announce that our team now includes Dan Hikuroa from Nga Pae o te Maramatanga, New Zealand’s Indigenous Centre of Research Excellence. There are several projects around the globe that do seismology in schools, but to celebrate New Zealand’s unique cultural heritage and its natural expressions such as earthquakes and volcanoes, we decided to name our network “Ru”, short for Ruaumoko, The Maori God of Earthquakes and Volcanoes.

 

Image created by Hka Taewa
Image used by permission of Hika Taewa ©

Mātauranga Māori (Māori knowledge) – produced over a time span of 1000 years, offers the longest record of New Zealand earthquakes available.

The name Rū is the Māori word for earthquakes, itself derived from Rūaumoko the deity of earthquakes (also known as Whakaruaimoko, Rūamoko, Rūaimoko, Whakarūamoko, Rūaimokoroa).

In Māori tradition, earthquakes are caused by Rūaumoko, the son of Ranginui (the Sky-father) and his wife Papatūānuku (the Earth-mother). Rangi had been separated from Papa by one of their sons Tānenuiarangi, and because they pined for one another so much, producing clouds, rain, mist, frost and snow, their sons resolved to turn their mother face downwards, away from Rangi towards Rarohenga, the underworld. When Papatūānuku was turned over Rūaumoko was still at her breast and was carried to the world below where he was given fire – te ahi komau to provide warmth and comfort for his mother. To avenge the ill-treatment of his parents, Rūaumoko constantly battles humankind, physically manifested by earthquakes and volcanoes. Although a geological interpretation of the ultimate explanations of why we experience earthquakes and volcanoes differs fundamentally from that given above, some interesting commonalities exist, most notably that earthquakes and volcanoes are caused by the same processes – heat causing earthquakes and volcanoes.

 

jAmaseis upgrade 1.02.0

An update for the SeisNZ fleet!

Released August 2014, this upgrade is to be installed on the machines connected to the seismometers.

If your version of jAmaseis needs updating, you will see an alert titled “Incompatible Version“. The text below the title will say something about needing to upgrade to version 1.0.2.x to be compatible with the IRIS data collection server. This incompatibility does not affect our ability to upload the screen grabs -just the way in which the instrumentation data is pushed to IRIS -given we are not yet doing this in any concerted fashion, this update is not essential.

The following is a recording of the process:

Step by Step

Quit jAmaseis and log out

Log in using the Seismometer Admin[istrator] account.

Open a finder window, and browse to the data hard drive.

Open this, then open the data folder, then open Shared

You should see a file labelled jAmaseis1020_install.app.zip

Copy this to the desktop.

Double click to unzip the file.

Double click on the extracted application jAmaseis_install[.app]

You should be able to click through the various dialogues without changing anything, but double check the settings if you like -the application needs to be installed in the Applications folder on the system drive (this will normally be named nzseis-XXX).

Once finished, check that the “Prevent Appnap” setting is checked, and restart the computer.

This should eventually bring the jAmaseis application back in the Seismometer User account -the new version should be up and running!

In the video above, I check the “Prevent Appnap” settings -but it looks as though the upgrade does not affect this.

DIY

You need to log in as the Seismometer Admin user.

Make sure jAmaseis is not already running.

Download the software from http://www.iris.edu/hq/jamaseis/.

Double click to install, and use the defaults provided.

 

You see a blip on the screen. Now what?

More often than not, the screen of your seismic stations may look something like this:

latest

Overall, the wiggles are small. The few spikes in this case are probably due to some electronic interference in the area where station AUCK is housed.

BUT: If you see something on your seismometer screen that stands out from the rest of your recordings, like this:

kermadecscreen

Then, there are a number of things you can check to see if you recorded an earthquake (or if this was some noise generated by bumping into the sensor, for example).

Geonet

Geonet is “the official source of geological hazard information for New Zealand,” according to the site.  They run a large network of seismometers in New Zealand, whose data is the source of information about all recorded earthquakes in New Zealand. Can you find an earthquake that would arrive at your school at the time of your signal?

USGS

The United States Geological Survey runs a world-wide version of Geonet. Its list of recent earthquakes can be found here.

If you want to get updates via email, text message or twitter, you can sign up for alerts from Geonet and from the USGS.

Your sister institutions

You can also directly compare the wiggles on your screen with either the wiggles from the other schools in the network, or with the closest “live” signals that geonet provides.  In this last link is a map on the right where you can find the station that is closest to your school.

M6.3 earthquake, 15 km east of Eketahuna

greatcircle

 
In the Science Centre of the City Campus of the University of Auckland we record seismic waves with the TC1 seismometer. Routinely, our station AUCK records seismic waves from earthquakes in New Zealand and beyond. On January 20th, 2014, an earthquake occurred on the South side of the North Island, 15 km east of Ekatahuna. Here is a map of the epicentre, our station location, and the great-circle path between them.

 

 

2014-01-20-02-52-44

On the left you can see 10 minutes of recordings, starting at the origin time of this earthquake. The green marker annotated with a Pn is the predicted arrival of the first wave traveling 4 degrees from the epicentre, 15 km east of Eketahuna, to Auckland. This prediction is based on a spherically symmetric model of the Earth, by Brian Kennett, and certainly seems to mark the start of minutes of vibrations in Auckland from this earthquake. In fact, if you look carefully you see that the wiggles after 10 minutes are still larger than before the first wave from this earthquake arrived. Larger earthquakes can make the Earth “ring” for many hours.

2014-01-20-02-52-44_zoom
In the image on the right, we zoomed in on the first-arriving wave, almost exactly one minute after the earthquake originated. Now, you can see that the prediction is actually a few seconds before the arrival. This means the lithosphere under the North Island of New Zealand is a bit slower (~3% on this path) than the average on Earth. In general, a hotter lithosphere is slower than a cold one. This makes seismic waves traversing old, cold, continents relatively fast, and those sampling younger lithosphere like ours in New Zealand, relatively slow.

In general, it is these small travel time differences that provide images of the (deep) earth through a process called seismic tomography.

A deep earthquake on the eastern margin of the Australian plate

Recently, we recorded seismic waves on our station AUCK from an Earthquake roughly 11 degrees to our North. This event is characterized by a strong P- and S-wave arrival as you can see in this figure:

fiji65_AUCKdata

Given the usual limitations of our (vertical) sensor when it comes to S-wave recordings, this is indicative of a very deep earthquake. The USGS estimates that this earthquake happened at a depth of 460 km. Now, under most places on Earth the rocks at those depths are too ductile to support the brittle breaking necessary for an earthquake, but in this case, the earthquake happened in — or on the boundary of — the brittle Pacific Plate subducted under the Australian Plate. Note that the epicentre of this event is about 500 km from the surface expression of the boundary between these plates. From the depth of the event and the offset to the plate boundary at the surface, we can estimate the angle of subduction may be around 45 degrees.

FIJI65_2014epicentre

The P- and S-wave markers are based on the average wave speed in the earth. In this case, they are a bit earlier than expected, because the subsurface between earthquake and the AUCK recording station is slower than average. As discussed previously, this is indicative of a young, warmer (and thus slower) lithosphere.

Furthermore, such deep earthquakes cause relatively little surface wave energy. The signal after the S-waves is likely a guided wave in the Pacific plate called a “leaky mode.” If you want to learn more about leaky modes in the Kermadecs, you should read this paper.