Below you find detailed instructions on the assembly of an aluminium and plexi-glass case for the TC1 seismometer. It was successfully tested by an 11-year old volunteer from Oratia District School (thank you, Hayden!)
Click on the images for more detail and a short description.Once assembled, it is recommended to fasten the completed case to a wall.
Thank you Mark, Trevor, Steve and all others from the Science and Engineering Workshop!
If all is well, you received a TC1 seismometer, a computer with everything installed, and a flat-packed protective case.
- Unpack the computer and TC1. Plug the power, the usb keyboard/mouse and ethernet cable into the computer.
- Connect the TC1 to the computer with the USB cable in the USB port marked “TC1.”
- Hook the magnets to the slinky attached to the inside of the top cap of the TC1.
- Lower the magnets into the tube so that the bottom magnet is inside the copper damping ring and the top magnet is inside the coil.
- Level the magnets with the three knobs on the legs. The goal is to make sure the magnets do not touch the rings.
- Also, make sure the top of the magnets are flush with the top of the copper ring and coil, respectively. Small adjustments to the vertical position of the magnets can be made with the knob on the top lid.
Now turn on the computer. All the necessary software to display your seismic data will turn on automatically. The most recent versions of the station software include a standard slide-show that explains the TC1, has acknowledgements, a map of NZ latest earthquakes (data courtesy of geonet), and the seismic data from your station.
You can turn the slide show on and off in the bottom
control panel. Just go the bottom of the screen with your mouse, and the button will appear.
Next, we assemble the case, and place it over the TC1. We recommend fastening the case to a wall, or to the floor.
Congratulations! You are up and running! If you have any questions or comments, please feel free to contact us using the mailing list on the left.
Soon, you will see your first signals!
If your institution wants to get involved in the Ru network, there are a couple of things to consider. In terms of hardware, you will need a public place (library, or foyer) with easy access to:
- power, and
- a wired internet connection
The hardware you need consists of:
- the TC1 seismometer,
- a dedicated computer,
- a case to protect the device from bumps.
Maybe most importantly, you need a Station Manager. A teacher would be the most logical choice, but it could be a parent. The station manager does not need to be a seismologist, but someone who can field basic questions from students, solve small problems with the station, and relay bigger ones to us for troubleshooting.
To give you an idea on how your class project may go, you can watch this video.
In the early days, support from the Foundation of the Society of Exploration Geophysicists, allowed us to sponsor scholarships available for the most suited institutions. The current model is for schools to self-fund the hardware. If you want to know more, please write us.
We are very proud to announce that our team now includes Dan Hikuroa from Nga Pae o te Maramatanga, New Zealand’s Indigenous Centre of Research Excellence. There are several projects around the globe that do seismology in schools, but to celebrate New Zealand’s unique cultural heritage and its natural expressions such as earthquakes and volcanoes, we decided to name our network “Ru”, short for Ruaumoko, The Maori God of Earthquakes and Volcanoes.
More often than not, the screen of your seismic stations may look something like this:
Overall, the wiggles are small. The few spikes in this case are probably due to some electronic interference in the area where station AUCK is housed.
BUT: If you see something on your seismometer screen that stands out from the rest of your recordings, like this:
Then, there are a number of things you can check to see if you recorded an earthquake (or if this was some noise generated by bumping into the sensor, for example).
Geonet is “the official source of geological hazard information for New Zealand,” according to the site. They run a large network of seismometers in New Zealand, whose data is the source of information about all recorded earthquakes in New Zealand. Can you find an earthquake that would arrive at your school at the time of your signal?
The United States Geological Survey runs a world-wide version of Geonet. Its list of recent earthquakes can be found here.
Your sister institutions
You can also directly compare the wiggles on your screen with either the wiggles from the other schools in the network, or with the closest “live” signals that geonet provides. In this last link is a map on the right where you can find the station that is closest to your school.
In the Science Centre of the City Campus of the University of Auckland we record seismic waves with the TC1 seismometer. Routinely, our station AUCK records seismic waves from earthquakes in New Zealand and beyond. On January 20th, 2014, an earthquake occurred on the South side of the North Island, 15 km east of Ekatahuna. Here is a map of the epicentre, our station location, and the great-circle path between them.
On the left you can see 10 minutes of recordings, starting at the origin time of this earthquake. The green marker annotated with a Pn is the predicted arrival of the first wave traveling 4 degrees from the epicentre, 15 km east of Eketahuna, to Auckland. This prediction is based on a spherically symmetric model of the Earth, by Brian Kennett, and certainly seems to mark the start of minutes of vibrations in Auckland from this earthquake. In fact, if you look carefully you see that the wiggles after 10 minutes are still larger than before the first wave from this earthquake arrived. Larger earthquakes can make the Earth “ring” for many hours.
In the image on the right, we zoomed in on the first-arriving wave, almost exactly one minute after the earthquake originated. Now, you can see that the prediction is actually a few seconds before the arrival. This means the lithosphere under the North Island of New Zealand is a bit slower (~3% on this path) than the average on Earth. In general, a hotter lithosphere is slower than a cold one. This makes seismic waves traversing old, cold, continents relatively fast, and those sampling younger lithosphere like ours in New Zealand, relatively slow.
In general, it is these small travel time differences that provide images of the (deep) earth through a process called seismic tomography.